Ramanattam was kathakali.green, the principal kathakali roals hearing the noise are knife, charcoal, beard, and polka. Kathakali instruments are kathakali.it’s main functions as a classic visual blend of dance.song and music. It is believed that the first form of kathakali was brought up by vallathol in kerala kalamandalam It is believed that the first form of kathakali was created in the 17th century by the ramanattam kathakali, popularized in the 17th century during the reign of the thamburan ramanattam, which tells the story of the ramayana king of drama in the travancore unnai warrior. Veerakerala kochi varma, and irayimman thampi The infernal rhythm of karthika thirunnal and the mendacity of muringoor sangaran potti began to decline from the beginningof the 20th century onwards with the advent of English education. opular wisdom and the advent of theater and theater kathakali was replaced by the art form of kathakali kerala kalamandalam was established in the 1930s under his guidance kalamandalam brought kathakali as far as the sea kathakali today has great significance in the tourism industry of kerala there is a lot of kathakali club and games played along with the kalamandalam. Duryodhan, keechakan, ravanan etc. karivasavam, katalan and shurpanakha are the crux of this story. The evil characters is red beards the hanuman white beard is tied and the kalik is determined by a black beard. There are three styles of beard minukku is a dress worn by woman and sages will be played in front of it after lighting a large lamp in a theater, or a stage kathakali. This is known as a toy lamp, the first function of whichis to listen to the story of kathakali, the story begins with the rituals, and after the rituals of thodayam, vandanaslokam, purappade and melapadam, the story begins with the singer and the actor plays with it.The instrument used in kathakali is chenda, maddalam, chengila and iiathalam. The music of kathakali is based on the soprano style. Handicraft is an important element of kathakali acting and is used in the use of handicraft seals. The festival of the stage school youth is also a factor in the spread of kathakali today kathakali is a major dance from the youth festival and the complex and nuanced art of finding the complexity of acting is definitely a gift to the visual arts community.



Mohiniyattam is one of the eight classical dances of India that developed and remained popular in the state of Kerala. Kathakali is another classical dance form of Kerala. Mohiniyattam dance derives its name from the word Mohini – a mythical enchanting avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, who helps the good to prevail over evil by developing her feminine powers. Mohiniyattam’s roots, like all classical Indian dances, lie in the Natya Shastra – the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text on performing arts. However, it follows the Lasya style described in Natya Shastra, a dance that is delicate, eros-filled and feminine. Traditionally, it is a solo dance performed by women after extensive training. Mohiniyattam’s repertoire includes music in the Carnatic style, singing and acting through dance, where the recitation may be either by a separate vocalist or by the dancer himself. The song is usually in the Malayalam-Sanskrit hybrid called Manipravalam.[2] The first mention of the word is found in the Vyavaharamala legal text of the 16th century, but the likely roots of the dance are older. The dance was systematized in the 18th century, ridiculed as a Devadasi prostitution system during the British Colonial Raj, prohibited by a series of laws from 1931 to 1938, a ban that was protested and partially repealed in 1940.Mohiniyattam is a classical Indian dance which, by definition, traces its repertoire to the basic text of Natya Shastra.[6 ] The text of Natya Shastra is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni. Its first complete compilation dates from 200 BCE to 200 CE[18][19 ] but estimates vary from 500 BCE to 500 CE According to Reginald Massey, the history of Mohiniyattam is unclear.[5] Kerala, the region where this dance genre has developed and is popular, has a long tradition of Lasya style dances whose basics and structure can be rooted in. In Kerala temple sculpture is found the earliest evidence of Mohiniyattam, or a dance practice similar to Mohiniyattam. The temple of Vishnuin Trikodithanam, 11th century, and the temple of Kidangur Subramanya have several It is then suggested that Malayalam’s poets and playwrights included Lāsyā themes. Nambootiri’s Vyavaharamala of the 16th century includes the first known mention of the term Mohiniyattam in the context of a payment to be made to a Mohiniyattam dancer.[9] Another 17th century text, Gosha Yatra, also mentions the term.[9] Balarama Bharatam of the 18th century, a major secondary work on Natya Shastra composed in Kerala, mentions many dance styles including Mohini Natana.9]In the 18th and 19th centuries, Mohiniyattam grew as dance arts received patronage from competing princely states. In particular, the sponsorship and construction by the Hindu king, poet and music composer Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma of the early 19th century of a joint Mohiniyattam and Bharatanatyam team of artists contributed to the growth and systematization of modern Mohiniyattam[8][22].Mohiniyattam’s vocalised music involves different rhythms. There are numerous compositions for a repertoire of Mohiniyattam, most of whose lyrics are in Manipravalam, a mixture of Sanskrit, Tamil and Malayalam.[50] The musical instruments usually used in Mohiniyattam are Mridangam or Madhalam (barrel drum), Idakka (hour glass drum), flute, Veena, and Kuzhitalam. The ragas (melody) are re.



A form of performing art that is quite popular in the northern districts of Kerala, Theyyam is a ritual dance form that embodies myth, dance, drama, music, art and architecture. The word Theyyam comes from Deivam, which stands for God in Malayalam. The performer of Theyyam is considered to be a medium between the supernatural and the mortal. This style of adoration has a lot to do with the various tribal worship practices. Theyyams come in flashy outfits, marked with headgears of varying size and a red color predominance for facial makeup. The actors adhere to a single dialect. The Theyyam’s costumes will differ by the role and myth of the forms. The facial makeup itself would speak volumes of a specific Theyyam’s character. Both costumes are designed by the artists themselves using materials which are available locally. In the Malabar region of Kerala, the districts of Kannur and Kasaragod, there are various forms of the Theyyams that once numbered about 900; but today they have been reduced to less than 500. The Theyyam myth involves worships of gods, deities, Mother Goddess, birds, serpents and trees with rituals that vary in each form.During the performance of the Theyyam, the story is sung in the form of narrative songs by the performer accompanying the chenda (traditional percussion) and the ilathalam (traditional cymbals) before the performance. The artist heads to the green room for make-up and costumes after finishing the album.In Malabar, the many sacred groves attached to the ancestral houses (tharavadu) and temples in the area come alive every year from December to May with the sound of anklets, signalling the arrival of Theyyams.The festival in Perumithitta Tharavadu is a spectacular one. This Theyyam festival is one of the most popular among Kerala’s Theyyam festivals, where many forms of Theyyam can be seen. It’s truly a great opportunity for Theyyams, and a variety of Theyyam performances can be seen at Perumthitta during the ten-day festival.



Padayani, which literally means “row of warriors,” is a dance form that belongs to the southern part of India. This dance form has its origins in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala, performed in honor of “Bhadrakali” (i.e. an avatar of Lord Shiva) It is mainly performed in the temples of Bhagavati, and involves the use of masks. In addition, this dance style combines elements of theater and music, making it an extremely interesting form of art. In addition, there are several versions of this dance form, including Kottangal Padayani, Kadammanitta Padayani, Kurampala Padayani, Kallooppara Padayani and Kunnamthanam Padayani.It’s said that the root of this dance style is related to a common folklore connectedwith Lord Shiva. According to this myth, Goddess Kali happened to kill Daruka, an asura, for one fine day. Suddenly Kali was filled with furious rage by the defeat of that demon (asura). Worried that this rage of Kali’s could lead to destruction of the world if allowed to build, Shiva sent his boothagana servants to pacify her. It was then that those servants danced before Kali in an effort to calm her wrath down. Thereby this dance style was eventually created in memory of this mythological tradition.The essential part of the costume used in this dance form is the facial mask (i.e. the collam) used. Essentially, this mask is made up of lathes belonging to theareca tree. In addition, the ingredients used in the preparation of this mask include kamukin pacha, kari, i.e. carbon, manjalpoodi and sindooram. In addition, natural colors are used to make this mask. There are also a number of masks available for this dance, and each mask represents a specific character. For example, the Bhairavi Kollam represents the goddess Kali, the Yakshi Kollam represents a fairy, and the Pakshi Kollam represents a bird.The musical instruments used in this dance form include patayani thappu (i.e. the form of a drum), chenda (i.e. another form of drum), para, and kumbham. Furthermore, the songs used in this dance form have basically been handed down from one generation of performers to another. The unique features of the technique involved in this dance form are the different styles available, including madan, marutha, yakshi, pakshi, kalan kolam, and bhairavi kolam. In addition, this dance involves the performance of the artist, accompanied by music, to all the above mentioned styles. The most important style is the kalan kollam, which essentially narrates a story about a little child (a devotee of Lord Shiva) and his imminent death. There are no training centers / schools available for this dance, either in the state or in the country, since it is an indigenous dance style developed in a state considered to be “God’s own land.”


Ottan thullal

Ottan Thullal (or Ottamthullal, Malayalam: Pilgrimage) is a dance and poetic performance of Kerala, India. It was written by Kunchan Nambiar, one of the Prachina Kavithrayam (three famous poets in the Malayalam language), in the eighteenth century. It is accompanied by a mridangam (a double headed drum with a barrel shape) or an idakka (drum and cymbal). The origins of Ottamthullal are in the classical principles of Natya Shastra, a treatise on art from the 2nd century B.C. The word Thullal means to jump or jump in the Malayalam language. Tradition has it that Nambiar, the poet, fell asleep for a Chakyar Koothu performance while playing the mizhavu inviting ridicule from the chakyar.In response, Nambiar developed Ottamthullal, which parodied the prevalent socio-political issues and regional prejudices. The chakyar had protested to the King of Chembakassery about the output of Nambiar. The King banned Ottamthullal performances fromthe temple complex at Ambalapuzha. Seethankan thullal, and Parayan thullal are closely related styles of art. For modern audiences Mathur Panikkar popularized Ottamthullal. Ottamthullal contests are held, and a social message may be conveyed through the art form.A solo performer in Ottamthullal, with a green makeup and a colorful costume (decorated with a long red and white band and painted wooden ornaments), performs and dances while reciting dance (Thullal) (Lyrics). A chorus or one or more artists repeats each sentence as it is completed. Ottamthullal has been performed more recently with a solo female actor and an ensemble cast. Nambiar is a parody of landlords and other prominent citizens. For example, the character of Bhima from the epic of the Mahabharata is portrayed as an oaf. Higher castes, including Brahmin, have not been spared. Ottan Thullal was performed in Malayalam, a place that pleased local audiences. Old sayings and folklore were used.In ancient days, this folk art used to be performed in the Telugu language, because Ottan is essentially a Telugu community


Sheethankan thullal

Sheethankan Thullal is a dance and poetic performance in Kerala, India. This one of the three predominant thullal forms in Kerala. Others are Parayan Thullal and Ottan Thullal. This dance happens at a very slow tempo. It gives priority to gestures than to verbal actions. In midnight, Sheethankan Thullal is usually performed. But it can also operate in daytime without the use of any on stage lights. For the output a minimum of three persons should be required. One for show planning, and others for musical instrument playing. For thullal the actor will be dressed in different costume. We use face-facing yellow colored powder and use coconut leaves cover.Usually Kakali is the meter used in this dance form.


Parayan thullal

Parayan Thullal is a form of dance and poetic performance prevailed in the state of Kerala, India. This one of the three predominant thullal forms in Kerala. Others are Ottan Thullal and Sheethankan Thullal.[1] These are usually performed in the morning. In this art form the Sanskrit meter Mallika is commonly used.The tempo of this art form is very slow. By means of gestures, the performer explains the meaning of the songs. The dance element in this art form is very small, and the dancer will stand upright most of the time. The Parayan thullal stories usually deal with spiritual matters. The Parayan thullal costume resembles Shesha. The person who performs the art wears snake shaped dress and crown. There’s a red cloth on the waist. The face is decorated with yellow paint. List of some paraayanthullalSabhapravesham Thripuradahanam Kumbhakarnavadham Dakshayagam Keechakavadham PulindeemokshamSundopasundopakhyanamNalayanicharitham Harichandracharitham



Onapottan (Onesvaran) is a folk character that appears in the North Malabar region of Kerala during the Onam season. The Onapottan visits the houses during Onam’s days at Utradam and Thiruvonam. Onapottan’s role is enacted by an artist. This character is given the name Onapottan because he doesn’t speak (pottan= deaf in the Malayalam language). The ringing of the traditional’ hand bell’ signals his arrival. He wears intricate props including the large crown, umbrella palm leaf, bangles, and face paint. Through offering blessings, he is to bring prosperity to the houses he visits.Nowdays Onapottan is not a common sight and is popular only in villages. In some parts of Kerala, the right to enact Onapottan is limited to members of the Malaya community



Pulikkali(‘ Puli’= Leopard / Tiger &’ Kali’= Play in Malayalam) is a recreational folk art from the state of Kerala.It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of the annual Onam Harvest Festival, held mainly in the Indian state of Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted to the beats of instruments such as Udukku and Thakil in bright yellow, red, and black dance like tigers and hunters. Pulikkali’s literal meaning is the’ play of the tigers ‘ hence the performance revolves around the topic of tiger hunting. Folk art is mainly practiced in the district of Thrissur, Kerala.The best place to watch the show is in Thrissur on the fourth day of Onam, where Pulikkali troops from all over the district gather toshow off their skills. The festival attracts thousands of people to the city of Thrissur. Pulikkali is also performed during a variety of other festive seasons. The origin of Pulikkali dates back to more than 200 years, when the Maharaja Rama Varma Sakthan Tampuran, then the Maharaja of Cochin, was said to have introduced folk art that wanted to celebrate Onam with a dance that reflected the wild and macho spirit of force. Afterwards,Konar of (Pattalam Road) celebrated with great fervorThey popularized the folk genre with the steps and body language peculiar to the tiger being harassed by the hunter, playing the game of the hunter and the beast. They used to perform, along with the celebrations, the art form decked as tigers with peculiar steps resembling the tiger, then known as’ Pulikkettikali’ which the locals enjoyed immensely. In memory of this event, Pulikkali in Thrissur is held.



The ancient Sanskrit theatrical art form of the state, Kutiyattam, is Kerala’s distinctive stage interpretation of the early Sanskrit drama as a dance drama. Kutiyattam (Koodiyattam), which is about 2000 years old, was accepted by the UNESCO as one of the’ Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Human Heritage.’ It is usually performed only in the temple theaters known as Koothambalam by the Chakyar and Nambyar castes until the first half of the 20th century. Only through a rigorous training of many years can one aspire to master the craft of Kutiyattam.The word Kutiyattam literally means “to act together.” In Sage Bharata’s Natya Shastra there are four methods or styles of acting listed–aangikam (expression using different parts of the body), vaachikam (expression through speech), sathvikam (expression of physical reactions to emotions) and aahaaryam (expression through clothing, ornaments and props) are all woven into Koodiyattam performances. A typical Koodiyattam performance involves elaborate and lengthy acting sequences using hand gestures and distinctive acting modes such as Ilakiyaattom, Pakarnnaatttom and Irunnaattom. As mentioned earlier, Kutiyattam performances are based on Sanskrit play. However, only a part of the play is enacted. Thus, the performance is not named after the play, but usually in terms of the event in focus. As such, Vichinnabhishekam, Mayaseethankom and Shoorppanakhaankom. Ankom literally means chapter. Prathimaabhishekam written by Bhasan, Swapnavaasavadatham, Prathijnjayougandharaayanam, Oorubhangam, Madhyama Vyaayogam, Doothavakyam, Naagaanandam by Sriharshan, Aashcharya Choodamani by Shakthibhadran, Subhadra Dhananjayam by Kulasekharavarman, Thapathe Samvaranam, Kalyanasaugandhikam by Neelakantan, Mathavilasom by Mahendra Varman and Bhadavaddujakam by Bodhayanan. Today, the presentation of a single’ ankam’ from one of these plays takes up to eight days where, as in the previous days, it took up to 41 days to complete a single chapter. Mizhavu is the main instrument used as an accompaniment to the performance of Kutiyattam. Others include Idakka, Kurumkuzhal, Shankhu and Kuzhithaalam.The Koothamablam temples (temple theaters) for Kutiyattam performances are Thirumandhamkunnu, Thiruvaarppu, Thiruvaalathur (Kodumba), Guruvayoor, Arppokkara, Kidangoor, Peruvanam, Thiruvegappuram, Moozhikkulam, Thirunakkara, Harippadu, Chengannur, Iringalakkuda and Vadakkumnatha, Thrissur.



Thirayattam is a ritual performing ethnic art form of the region of South Malabar in the state of Kerala. It blends dance, theatre, music, satire, facial and body painting, masking, martial art and ritualistic function.This vibrant art form has a great resemblance to the traditions and customs of ancient civilization. Thirayattam is usually enacted in “kaavukal” (sacred groves) courtyards and village shrines of southern Malabar region (kozhikode & malappuram dt:) in Kerala. Traditionally, the “Perumannan” community has the right to perform this magnificent art form in “kaavukal” (Holy Groves). Today Thirayattam is also performed by members of the “Panan” and “Cherumar” groups. The performer enters a trance with “Moorthy” or deity whose “Kolam” is enacted and moves vigorously, displaying belligerent mannerism and gestures which are believed to be divine.



Kummattikali or Kummatti Kali is the famous colorful dance mask of Kerala, prevalent in the district of Thrissur, the district of Palakkad and parts of South Malabar. Kummattikali performers move from house to house during Onam festival collecting little gifts and entertaining people. During Onam, Kummatti dances rampant up in the district of Thrissur. The most interesting facet of Kummattikali is the pristine or original form of Kummattikali that can be seen in the Bhadrakali temple in the Palakkad district. The dancers are wearing a colorful wooden mask depicting the faces of Krishna, Narada, Kiratha, Darika, or hunters.These masks are usually made of saprophyte, jack fruit tree, Alstonia scholaris, Hog Plum tree or Coral tree. Kummatti dancers are a sight to watch as they move from house to house collecting jaggery, rice, or small amounts of cash. Onlookers, especially children, enjoy their performance greatly. The rhythm for the dance movements is provided by vibrating the string of an onavillu-like bow. Areca nut wood is used to make a bow, and the strings are beaten with a small bamboo stick. The themes of Kummattikali are mostly taken from the stories of Ramayana, Darika Vadham, the story of Shiva and folk tales such as Manjan Nayare Pattu.It can be noted that the folk art of Kerala can be classified into two broad categories, ritualistic and non-ritualistic. Ritualistic can be further categorized into-Devotional, performed to honor a specific god and goddess, and types of Magical Art. Some of the devotional art forms are Theyyam, Thira, Poothamthira, Kannyar Kali, Kummattikali, etc..


Chakyar koothu

Chakyar Koothu (pronounced as performance art from Kerala, India. It is primarily a type of highly refined monolog where the performer narrates episodes from Hindu epics (such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) and Purana stories. However, it is also sometimes a traditional equivalent of the modern stand-up comedy act, incorporating commentary on current socio-political events (and personal comments addressed to the audience members).”Koothu” means dancing. Which is a misnomer, as facial expressions are underscored and choreography is minimal. It is performed in the Koothambalam; a place within Hindu temples designed specifically to perform Kutiyattam and Chakyar Koothu. Ideally, the performance takes place in conjunction with the festivals presented by members of the Chakyar community and the Ambalavasi Nambiars.It is a solo performance by a narrator in a distinctive headgear and a black moustache with a torso of sandalwood paste and red dots all over the body. The headgear resembles the hood of the snake, symbolizing Anantha’s tale, the thousand serpent headed. The Chakyar narrates the story based on the “Champu Prabandha” Sanskrit form-a combination of prose (gadya) and poetry (shloka). Koothu has traditionally been performed by the Chakyar community alone. The performance is accompanied by two instruments-a mizhavu and some ilathalam. This is distinct from the Nangiar Koothu, performed by women who belong to the Nambiar caste called Nangyarammas, and is a more sophisticated art of theatre. Chakyar Koothu was originally performed only in the Hindu temples of Koothambalam. It was Natyacharya — meaning a great natyam (dramaturgy) teacher and practitioner, a title given in his honor— Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār, a virtuoso of this craft, who brought Koothu and Kudiyattam out to the common people outside the temples. He was the first to perform for All India Radio and Doordarshan on Chakyar Koothu



Kalaripayattu (sometimes shortened as Kalari) is an Indian martial arts and fighting system that originated in modern-day Kerala. Kalaripayattu is also listed in the ballads about the Chekavar written by Vadakkan Pattukal from the Malabar region of Kerala. Kalaripayattu is held in high regard by martial artists because of its long-standing history of Indian martial arts. This is considered to be India’s oldest surviving martial art. It is also considered one of the oldest martial arts still in existence, with its roots in the history of martial arts dating back at least to the 3rd century BCE.The author Arnaud Van Der Veere bestows on India the origin of martial arts (the roots of which are thought to be Kalaripayattu), to which Kalaripayattu refers as “the mother of all martial arts.” Kalaripayattu is a martial art designed for the ancient battlefield (the word” Kalari “means” battlefield), “with weapons and combative techniques unique to India. Kalaripayattu practitioners have an intricate knowledge of the pressure points on the human body and healing techniques that incorporate the knowledge of Ayurveda and Yoga. Students are taught martial art as a way of living, with a sense of compassion, discipline, and reverence for concept, fellow students, parents, and society. Particular emphasis is placed on avoiding confrontational situations and only using martial art as a means of protection if there is no alternative.

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